WP 3 Water pollution
In WP3, the extent and effect of water pollution from shipping in the Baltic Sea will be assessed. Impact on the marine environment from ships may be either direct as discharge of nutrients and/or contaminants in sewage, ballast water, cooling water, bilge water, scrubber water, leakage of stern-tube oils or leakage of toxic anti-fouling paints. It may also be indirect as deposited eutrophying or acidifying substances as well as contaminants from ship plumes. To reduce emissions and discharges from ships international regulations apply, mainly through conventions by the International Maritime Organization. On the other hand, the ambitious monitoring program of the European Commission, implemented as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, has identified eleven areas of concern regarding anthropogenic impact to the marine environment. For each area also called Descriptors the state of Good Environmental Status has been defined, usually a description of what the marine environment looked like in the 1950-ies.